Critics say the bill would create an internet firewall similar to China's. All internet traffic must be capable of being rerouted through exchanges monitored by Roskomnazor (in English: Federal Service for Supervision of Communications).
Russian Federation has already moved to block webpages run by opposition figures such as Alexei Navalny, a prominent Kremlin critic.
Earlier this month, the Agora human rights group said the legislation was one of several new laws that "seriously threaten internet freedom".
The government wants this ability to ensure they can protect their Internet assets from foreign aggression and be able to route all traffic internally. "Moreover, the methods of its implementation have not yet been precisely defined".
Technical detail is sadly lacking from the various Russian and English-language reports on precisely how this will be done, though the Russian state is reportedly reimbursing ISPs for the cost of extra infrastructure needed to make it happen.
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Senior Russian officials have expressed increasing alarm that some form of disconnection may be forced upon them.
However, some observers told the British publication that they believe the move is another step toward duplicating China's Great Firewall - which restricts access of that country's internet users to content approved by the communist government - in Russian Federation. Putin has previously called the internet a "CIA project". The network test is meant to ensure that the Russian internet can operate if cut off.
It's not clear if this test will disrupt Internet connectivity inside Russian Federation or not but all Internet providers have agreed to participate. "In this situation we should be thinking how to grow potatoes in a nuclear winter, and not about the internet".
But some officials think the voice that western countries will cut off Russia's network is very ridiculous, instead, the Russian government will do it automatically in emergency to eliminate the negative impacts on the nation. Leonid Volkov, a Navalny aide and IT expert, said Russian Federation had tried and failed to unplug from the internet in 2014.